and methods used during the study. The American West: A New Interpretive History (2000 deals with events, not historiography; concise edition is Frontiers: A Short History of the American West (2008) Hofstadter, Richard. Sometimes authors use examples to illustrate points. 184 in the APA Manual, 6th edition for further explanation. Only the processed data needs to be included in the summary. Abstracts are usually included in most academic journals and are generally no more than 100-200 words. Fill in the blanks and assumptions, helping to clarify the research and summarize it briefly. Second, it is easier to write a summary if you identify the most crucial information before you begin skimming the article Try again. In a quick free write, describe the academic journey of the article, listing the steps taken from starting point to concluding results, describing methodology and the form of the study ere is no need to be too specific; that's what the actual summary will.
Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume). However, do not use the document number in your reference; instead, provide the volume number followed by page numbers. Different areas of focus within a journal article will usually be marked with sub-section titles that target a specific step or development during the course of the research study. Land of Savagery / Land of Promise: The European Image of the American Frontier in the Nineteenth Century (1981) Bogue, Allan. It depends on what field you're writing a summary for. 5 Were the authors successful and did they meet their objectives for conducting the research?