around 300,000 species of flora that have been known to date and numerous species of fauna that includes not only animals but also birds, fish, reptiles, mammals, insects, molluscs, crustaceans, etc. Under Article 1, the Convention applies to the Antarctic marine resources of the area south of 60 degrees South latitude and to the Antarctic marine living resources of the area between that latitude and the Antarctic Convergence which form a part of Antarctic marine ecosystem. Biodiversity offers a unified view of all these biological varieties. Within this definition, there are 3 distinct levels of biodiversity: Species diversity: diversity among species present in different ecosystems. An Oceanarium consists of 2 printed pages and a maximum of 600 words (including title, caption, up to 5 references, acknowledgements, and author details). Ecosystem diversity is important for primary production in terms of: Soil fertility, plant pollination, predator control, waste decomposition. The climate varies highly in different parts of the world and thus there is a variation in the kind of life present in each part. However, with the growing air, water and land pollution on our planet it is becoming difficult to maintain biodiversity. This convention was ratified by all countries worldwide with the exception of: Andorra, Brunei Darussalam, the Holy See, Iraq, Somalia, Timor-Leste, and the United States of America.
The reason for unequal distribution of various organisms in different parts of the world is the varied climatic conditions. However, this common concern still requires a more obvious focus than national actions or diverse regional or sectoral actions, for much of the attention has to be taken in international waters as well in coastal waters or in ways that will reflect natural ecosystem boundaries. A further formal step in the protection of Antarctic Ecosystem was taken with the conclusion of the 1991 Madrid Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty on Environmental Protection.
This is the diversity of species interactions and their immediate environment. Marine and coastal systems provide important food sources, and marine creatures offer a multitude of different substances which may be of significance successful marriage essay introduction to the medical and chemical industry. Apart from the obvious variations in the oceans at different latitudes or depths, the existence of closed or semi-closed seas and of major currents, confluences and gyres in the open system means that there is a wide variety of different ecosystems in the marine environment. 1980 canberra convention ON THE conservation OF antartic marine living resources. International regime FOR THE protection OF marine ecosystem.